Saturday, June 20, 2020

Greek Art Essay

Greek Art Essay Greek Art Essay Greek art essay is a specific type of art essay that focuses only on Greek art and architecture. Basically, Greek art essay can be written according to the same guidelines and techniques that are used when writing a regular art essay paper. However, one has to understand that Greek culture is completely unique, thus, it requires a lot of research and understanding of the topic but not merely a certain sculpture or painting. Greek Art Essay Writing To be a good writer for a Greek art essay one has to obtain certain expertise in the field of art and Greek culture in particular. It is required in order to provide an accurate evaluation and analysis of the piece of art in the college paper. Greek art essay should start with an introduction, where writer has to present a thesis statement and goal of the research. Next comes general information on the topic, which starts with detailed description of the authorship. Consequently, Greek art essay will include information about artist or architect, who created it, when and where it was created, and of course the provenance of this piece of art. In art essay writer is required to describe major techniques and mediums used for creating sculpture or painting, thus, he/she should provide information on materials it is made of, execution, and size. Moreover, writer has to combine art analysis techniques with Greek culture analysis methods, in order to reveal the atmosphere of Greek art cult ure. When making art paper, one must remember that Greek art essay must not be a regular art analysis paper, but has to be backed up with lots of historical facts and evidence to make it credible. Today, hundreds of custom writing agencies offer their help and support with writing Greek art essay and thesis in art. Even though most of them are not able to deliver quality college paper or art essay in particular,.com will surely provide you the best art paper.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Writing a PhD Thesis

Writing a PhD ThesisA thesis is a summary of your graduate education. It serves as the main study document of the PhD program. You use a thesis as the base for defining what you did in your graduate studies, showing all your accomplishments, and even showing how you were able to create these accomplishments.Thesis preparation begins at school. If you have not yet started your PhD program, the time at school is the best. This is where you can organize the thesis and set up any final requirements and documents needed to complete the course. This is also the time when you can show off the results of your thesis, so make sure to go over everything with your supervisor to make sure it reflects what you really learned.When your thesis is complete, you can submit it to the university or school to be published. You will have the opportunity to do this after the thesis is finalized. If you chose to work with a publishing house, they will either offer you a copy of the manuscript, which you ca n then distribute to other graduate schools, or you will have the opportunity to make your book available to students in your field, depending on the publishing house's policy. Usually you will receive a bibliography to assist in the process of publishing your thesis.After the publication process is completed, you will be notified if you will have your thesis published in a journal. Most doctoral programs publish the thesis in their annual catalog, but a majority of universities also print copies of the thesis in their school newspapers.When the thesis is finally accepted for publication, you should consider sending your thesis to the university's library. There are generally six steps to publishing your thesis. Some libraries accept the first two; others may require the final four or five steps.Your university's library usually offers many services for students in their library, such as storage for files and books. Theymay also offer courses in course writing, editing, publishing, and in fact pretty much any topic related to graduate school and doctoral dissertation writing.You can also send your thesis to the university's library. The library might offer a submission service, which is where you upload your thesis and post-it notes. In some libraries, submitting your thesis is free, while in others it will cost a fee, depending on your school's policies.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The different models of the biped walking robots. - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 31 Words: 9206 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION AIMS AND OBJECTIIVES CHAPTER 3.LITERATURE REVIEW This portion would discuss the background research in detail, the methodologies and other useful aspects involved in designing the earlier models of the bipeds and pros and cons of the different models of the biped walking robots. The first biped walking robot was established in 1893 by a native Canadian; Prof. George Moore (Mechanical Man, 1893) reported he build a robot which was a figure of a man, constructed of iron and fitted with internal mechanism, used steam for motion was intended to move similar to the walking gait of a human being. I t appeared like an old-fashioned knight. The walking speed for this model was around four to five miles per hour and stood six feet tall in height. (Roshiem, 1994) stated that the steam man was powered by a gas fired boiler with a power of 0.5 h.p. Swing arm provided it with stability as it guided him in circles. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The different models of the biped walking robots." essay for you Create order (Machado, Silva, 2005) told that computer controlled biped systems has been a much focused area at Waseda University, Japan, since the end of 1960s. At the Humanoid Research Laboratory a biped robot was transpired by Ichiro Kato on 1969 which was called WAP-1. The robot mainly consisted of artificial rubber muscles for its actuation. Playback of priory taught movement was used for the biped locomotion. The main restraint in WAP-1 was its low speed. It was followed by WAP-2 and WAP-3. (Thomas Isaac, 2004) stated that in 1971 WAP-3 was developed which could not only move on flat surfaces but could also move up and down on the stair case by moving its center of gravity on the frontal plane. WAP-3 was the first in the world to achieve the three-dimensional walking and turning. It was directed by a control based memory. 3.1 WL-10RD, BIPER-3 and 4 As stated (Elliot Nicholls, 1998) in 1985 another robot used the quasi-dynamic walking which was named WL-10RD and it was developed by the same research team as above. Since this time the development in this research has been rather drippy. BIPER-3 was developed in 1984 by Miura and Shimuyana which completely flake out the static balance entirely. This was modeled after the human walking on stilts, showed true active balance. This robot contained three actuators in which one is used to change the angle separating the legs towards the motion direction and the other two which lifted the legs to the side in the sidelong plane. This robot is termed as three degree of freedom robot. Later another robot was developed named BIPER-4 and this was extended to seven degree of freedom robot. Another robot was developed by Raibert using the methodology that the robot used uncluttered driven leg for the leaping motion and was attached to a chain which restricted pitch motion, vertical and horizontal translation around a radial path inscribed by the chain. The current progress of the leaping motion of the robot was tracked using the state machine activated by the sensor feedback. The state machine was then used to modify the control algorithm which modified three parameters of leaping stride forward speed, foot placement and body attitude. Hodgins, Koechling and Raibert developed a dynamic running robot which extended the earlier study of one-legged hopping robot into two and three dimensional. The two dimensional robot used the same control methodology as previously used in the hopping robot in two- dimension controlling the three aspects of the running stride which are body height, foot placement and body attitude using the state machine. The robot was controlled differently using the different sates of the sate machine. 3.2 WHL-11 (Karsten Burns, 2010) describes that in 1985, biped walking robot was developed by Waseda Universitys Humanoid research laboratory in partnership with Hitachi Ltd. The robot could walk on flat path at the rate of 13 seconds a foot and it was achieved by putting an onboard computer and a hydraulic pump in addition to that of earlier WL series robot. It was seen that this robot could walk up to 64 km. The main cons in this robot were that it was unable to walk on inclined surfaces. So since the work is being done to stabilize the movement to develop a control system that can adjust gaits. 3.3 WL-12RIII Another biped walking robot was established in 1989 as described by (Agrosy 2010) named WL-12RIII and it used the principle of stabilizing its walking on different paths using the trunk motion. An algorithm was developed used to calculate trajectory of the trunk and was done by introducing a virtual surface which is derived from the geometry of the path and the trajectory of the feet. When experimented on a stair with a height of 10cm and the time it took to go up and down was 2.6 seconds and when experimented on a inclination of 10 degrees, it took 1.6 seconds to walk down the path. Kato came up with a control methodology where the path of the robot is unknown as well as the external forces acting on it by using combinational motion of the trunk and lower portion of the biped. So finally the step size of the biped was reduced to 0.64 of a second. 3.4 WASUBOT and Manny (Agrosy, 2010) has explained in his site that WASUBOT is another biped robot. Its basic principle is the same as that of the WABOT-2. The change was rather a clarification in maintenance of the robot and WAM 8s as the arms. In 1989 at Battelles Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richand, a full manlike behavior robot named Manny was developed. It took three years and $2 million to develop this robot by the work of 12 researchers. It was delivered to the US Armys Dugway proving ground in Utah. Manny had 42 degree of freedom. 3.5 P1, P2 and P3 According to (Daniel Ichbiah 2005) with the aim of producing bipedal walking robots in 1993 the first series of P prototypes came into existence. First developed was P1 which was quite big and heavy like a metal monster which was 6 feet and 2 inches in height and was 175 kilograms in weight. Instead of a face it had a big screen of rectangular shape. In challenge of making robots more or less like the humans they came up with others models like P2 and P3. P2 came into being officially on 20th of September 1996 and cost around $ 105.3 million. It was shorter in height but weighed more like 208 kilos. September marked a critical moment in the history of Biped robots by the coming of P3. It was made of purified white steel and plastic and resembles to an astronaut. It was based on the same technological model and had same technological capabilities but its height was 5 feet and 4 inches and weighed 130 kilos quite short and light weighted as compared to the earlier models. P3 walked at the same speed as the human. Coming of P3 was a big step towards the modelling of Biped robots quite similar to humans. Honda was keen to accept this challenge of reducing some more weight. In 2003 an upgraded version of Asimo was introduced it was a great machine which had some social ethics of greeting. It could also pass information like the weather forecast. According to (Daniel Ichbiah, 2005), in the summer of 2003 HPR-2 came in to existence by the production team of AIST. It was a prototype which could get down and stand up all by itself. It worked using the limb coordination software and Kawada industries were able to design its body with flexible joints but the main problem was it was heavier and taller than Asimo. (Kieth Kleiner, 2009) told that Toyota in 2009 developed a humanoid robot which could run upto 7 km/h overcoming Hondas Asimo which could run to 6 km/h. Hondo Asimo robot is capable of ascending and descending on a staircase and handling varying circumstances unlike Toyota which can only on flat surfaces. (Kim Tae Gyu, 2009) Humanoid robot RX is a running robot which was developed by South Korea which after Japan is the second in the world which was put forward by a local avocation working with not much of a budget 3.6 Main point according Fumio Kanehiro According to (Daniel Ichbiah 2005) Fumio Kanehiro who is the member ASIT said One of the main problems with humanoid robots is that they easily fall over. When a biped robot stands on its two feet, only a very small area in contact with the ground supports it, while its centre of gravity is at waist level, which is relatively high. Year Researcher Area of Development 1850 Chebyshev Design Linkage used in early walking mechanism 1872 Muybridge Uses stop motion photography to document running animals 1893 Rygg 1961 Space General Eight legged kinematic machine walks in outdoor terrain 1968 Frank and McGhee Simple digital logic controls walking of Phony Pony 1977 McMahon and Greene Human runner with speed record on tuned track at Harvard 1980 Kato Hydraulic biped walks with quasi-dynamic gait 1981 Miura and Shimoyama Walking biped balances actively in three-dimensional space 1985 A. Takanishi et al Realization of dynamicbipedwalking stabilized with trunk motion under known external force 1992 Kajita et al Dynamic Walking Control of aBiped RobotAlong a Potential Energy Conserving Orbit 1996 Kun, A., Miller II daptive dynamic balance of abipedusing neural networks 1998 Park, JH and Rhee ZMP trajectory generation for reduced trunk motions ofbiped robots 2000 elexistence technology was adapted in a new type of cockpit system to control a humanoid biped robot 2002 S. Meyret, A. Muller Adaptative neuro-fuzzy control of the rabbitbiped robot 2004 J. Gutman, M. Fukuchi Detection of stair dimensions for the path planning ofbiped robot 2006 A. Sutherland Torso Driven Walking Algorithm for Dynamically Balanced Variable SpeedBiped Robots 2007 F. Asano and Z.W. Luo Asymptotically stable gait generation forbiped robotbased on mechanical energy balance Table. Development in the field of legged robots CHAPTER 4 BIPEDAL WALKING 4.1 Why Study Legged Robots? (M.H Raibert 1986) mentioned there is a contemplative reason for researching robots with legs, apart from the outright adventure of developing robots that can actually run. Reason being the mobility and they provide an exertive suspension from the gait of the feet. Moving through difficult terrain, where other cannot go is one of the main reasons for legged robots. Legged robot perform actively while moving on a rough terrain unlike the traditional wheeled robots which can only move on flatter surfaces and in result this limits the wheeled robots to move on half the earths landmass. Legged robots use isolated footholds that maximise support and friction but wheeled robots need a constant path of support. Another advantage is, despite pronounced variations in the terrain, the payload is free to travel stably. Legged robots can also tip through the hurdled obstacles. (Yang and Kim, 1998;; Spenneberg, et al., 2004) have investigated a further lately, worries malfunction tolerance during immobile stable locomotion. The effect of a failure in one of the wheels of a wheeled vehicle is a stern lost of mobility, since all wheels of these kinds of vehicles should be in permanent contact with the ground during locomotion. However, legged vehicles may present a superfluous number of legs and, therefore, can maintain static balance and continue its locomotion even with one or more of its legs damaged. (M.H Raibert 1986) explains another main reason for studying legged robots is to boost a greater knowledge of human and animal movement. This point could further be explained by actually analyzing the athletes during the instant replays. We could analyze the complexities and the various procedures involved in the various postures and position of legs while they are performing different tasks and can study the movements while they swing, throw, drift, maintaining balance and speed as they go or otherwise drive their body through space. This performance can not only be seen in the athletes performing on Television we can have our sight set at the local playground where ones own child in coming forward from a phase of crawling on four sets to walking on two legs and then running, jumping, climbing and performing various other exercises. 4.2 Walking Gait Studying and analysing (M.W.Whittle, 2003) normal gait has quiet an importance. It is also important to know the nomenclature used to describe the gait. This section gives a detailed overview of the gait cycle before formally developing a detailed mathematical and software model. It is challenging (Joel, DeLisa, 1998) to come up with a formal definition of the walking gait without sounding pompous as it looks quite a simple task. An informal definition of the walking can be put forward as a method of locomotion involving the use of two legs, to provide both support and propulsion. Clinical study of the gait is the most commonly used technique from the various techniques. A single gait cycle can be described as the sequence or interval between a foot strikes to foot strike of the same leg. There have been (Lamm R.D., 1995) two main classifications of a complete gait cycle phase: stance phase and the swing phase. The phases are also subdivided as shown in the figure below. right left left right right left initial pre initial pre initial pre contact swing contact swing contact swing Time percent of cycle Double R.Single Support Double L.Single SupportDouble Support Support Support 0% 15% 45% 60% 100% 0% 40% 55% 85% 100% The interval of the stance phase is taken as 60% of the total interval. Double support phase and single support phase are the two sub-divisions of the stance phase. Double support phase can be encompassed as when both the legs are in contact with the ground. It has been analysed that at average walking the double support is 10% of the total gait interval, but as the speed increases, the double support interval decreases. The remaining interval is the single support phase. To avoid buckling of the support foot in the stance phase, the muscles like tibialis anterior, the quadriceps, the hamstring, the hip abductors come into function Energy conservation during a walking cycle can be categorized into three main events. The events include controlling the forward movement during the deceleration towards the end of the swing phase, jolt absorption while the foot land on the ground and momentum during push-off when the centre of gravity is pushed up and forward. A humans centre of mass is a located at the hip joint. Centre of mass does not deviate up or down, when a body is moving in a straight line, at his moment not much energy is required. This straight line is only possible wheels are placed instead of the feet, but this is not the case in humans so it deviates in a vertical and lateral sinusoidal displacement. At midpoint centre of mass is at the highest position and centre of mass during human locomotion goes in rhythmic flow of upwards and downwards motion. At time of the double support phase the centre of mass is at the lowest point 4.3 Why pointed feet? (Westervelt et al, 2007) degree of actuation of the system is an essential source of complication or in a more absolute domain, the degree under-actuation. Under-actuation is used to describe devices that have lower number of actuators then degree of freedom. Inverted pendulum is a classic example of under actuated system. The model taken in this report assumes that at stance leg there is no possibility of actuation and legs are terminated in points. There could be a major concern over modelling feet pointed because real robots have feet. Against the mechanical bipedal walking which is to be contrasted, if one takes a persons walking as the defected benchmark, then the flat-footed walking accomplished by current robots needs to be improved? In particular, toe roll toward the finish of the single support phase needs to be certified as part of the gait plan. Currently, this is not legitimate specifically because it leads to under-actuation, which cannot be indulged with the control des ign philosophy based on trajectory tracking and a quasi-static stability principle, such as the zero moment point (ZMP). A model of an anthropomorphic walking gait should at minimum regarded as a fully actuated phase where the stance foot is level on the ground, pursued by an under-actuated phase where the stance heel rises from the ground and the stance foot rotates with reference to the toe, and a double support phase where leg switch over takes place, optionally, heel strike and heel roll could also be incorporated, which would yield a second under-actuated phase in the gait. In either case, a model of walking with a point contact is an essential element of a general model of walking that is more anthropomorphic in nature than the existing flat-footed walking paradigm. Because of the fact that the model with point feet is quite simple as compared to a more complete anthropomorphic gait model, it makes possible the development of new feedback designs and dynamic stability analysis methods that are suitable for moving past quasi-static walking. 4.4 Terminology Some basic nomenclature would be put forward before going towards the formal mathematical modelling of the biped robot. This nomenclature would permit a casual explanation of the essential fundamentals of a dynamic model of a bipedal robot to be given which, in turn, will allow some demanding characteristics of the control problem to be elevated. A biped is referred to as an open kinematic chain which consists of two sub-chains which could be referred to as legs and torso. These are all connected at a common point called a hip. During the walking cycle of the biped, either one foot or both foot are on the ground. These are referred to as single support phase and double support phase. According to the model taken in this report, single support phase is defined as the phase of the walking cycle when only one foot is in contact with the ground. Stance leg is the contacting leg and the other is called the swing leg. When both feet are in contact with the ground, this is referred to as t he double support phase It is required that the movement of the robots centre of mass is strictly monotonic. Non-slipping nature of the feet is assumed when in contact with the ground. A planar biped is a biped whose motions only take place in the sagittal plane. Sagittal plane is the longitudinal planes that divide the body into right and left sections. Three dimensional bipeds have locomotion both in sagittal and frontal plane. A statically stable gait is a rhythmic movement in which the centre of the mass of the biped lies in the support polygon. All the point of contact on the ground forms a convex hull which is referred to as support polygon. A dynamically stable gait is a rhythmic movement where the centre of pressure of the biped is on the boundary of the support polygon for at least part of the cycle. 4.5Passive Dynamic Walking Passive dynamic walking is purely stationed on the recovery of the biped dynamic structure. Passive walkers are capable of maintaining a stable, rhythmic walking motion but they do not need external energy. The passive dynamic walker uses one leg to freely swing using its own weight and the other one supporting the swing. The second leg turns to swing while weight moves foot to another. The subject has been studied widely. (T. McGeer, 1990) showed that a biped robot, suitably constructed to walk without external support. Very little energy is required when the knee joints are used that is why people use walking to benefit the body and legs. (M. Coleman ja, 1998) purely passive walkers biggest limitation is their ability to walk only downhill. Increasing the systems low-power control can be achieved walker who keeps a stable walking motion ina flat or slight uphill, but whose energy is close to the minimum. (Ted McGeer,1990) the practical enthusiasm for working on passive walking is, first, that it makes for mechanical simplicity and relatively high efficiency. Second, control of speed and direction is simplified when one doesnt have to worry about the details of generating the gait. Moreover, the simplicity of the machine promotes understanding. Consider an analogy with the development of powered flight: The Wrights put their initial efforts into studying gliders, as did their predecessors Cayley and Lilienthal. Once they had a reasonable grasp of dynamics and control, adding a power plant was a relatively minor modification. (In fact their engine wasnt very good for its day, but their other strengths led them to outstanding success.) As Ill explain, adding power to a passive walker involves a comparably minor modification. 4.6Robot Walking Hypothesis (Westervelt et al, 2007) a biped walking robot would be modelled based on the properties listed below. In order to ensure the robot satisfies these properties, a controller would be imposed. The robot consist of periodic phase of single support and double support Throughout the contact, the stance leg end acts as an ideal pivot, during the single support phase. The ratio of the horizontal component to the vertical component does not excel the coefficient of static friction. The vertical component of the ground reaction device is non-negative. There is no slip or rebounding of the swing leg, while the previous stance leg discharges without correspondence with the ground. With respect to the two legs, the motion is symmetric in steady state. In each step, the swing leg begins from strictly behind the stance leg and at impact is positioned in front of the stance leg. Walking takes place on level surface from left to the right 4.7 Dynamics Model The biped under consideration is a simple two foot robot to ensure the possibility of mathematical simulation. The model simulates the complete walking system. (Olli Haavisto et al, 2007) biped robot is a two-dimensional system with five links including a torso and two identical legs with knees. This model has been used by many researchers (Hardt et al, 1999; Juang, 2000) as it explains the walking motion of a biped robot quiet well. mo (xo, yo) ro lo r1 m1 l1 L R ML1 r2 R MR2 y m2 l2 L ML2 x FLx FRx FLy FRy The biped robot under consideration needs seven variables to describe the position in two-dimensional coordinate system which means that the robot has seven degrees of freedom. The coordinate (xo, yo) describe the position of the centre of the mass of the torso in a fixed position and being the angle of the torso with respect to the normal. L is the angle that the left thigh joint makes with respect to the torso and R is the joint angle of the right thigh with respect to the torso. L and R are the left and right knee joint angle with respect to the left and right thigh joint respectively. q = [xo, yo, , L, R, L, R]T (l0, l1, l2) denotes the link length of the torso, thigh and the shin respectively and (m0, m1, m2) denotes the masses. The links centre of the mass is located at a distance (r0, r1, r2) from the corresponding joint. External forces are used to model the walking plane that involves both the legs. The forces are in effect, when the leg touches the ground, to support the leg. The force is zeroed when the leg is not in contact with the ground or when the leg rises. F = [FLx, FRx, FLy, FRy]T The actual control signal for the model is the four moments, two of them actuated between torso and both the thighs and two are actuated at the knee joints. M = [ML1, MR1, ML2, MR2]T The two foot walking model used here has been studied in detail. (C. Chevallereau, 2003) developed a robot named RABBIT in which it was assumed that the when the swing foot hits the ground the other foot immediately rises into the air. All the walking stages have been described in this model but thelegwill always causea a steppedchange inthe systemmode and is calculatedseparately. 4.7.1 Lagrangian mechanics (David McMahon, 2008) by taking the difference between the kinetic and the potential energies, a function lagrangian can be constructed. It can be used to derive the equations of the motion and is an equivalent to the Newtonian method. The lagrangian is a fundamental concept which captures all the dynamics of the system and allows us to determine many useful properties such as averages and dynamic behaviours. (R.D. Gregg, 2011) a mechanical system with n-degree of freedoms with Q as the configuration space is described by elements (q, q) of tangent bundle (the space of configurations and their tangential velocities) TQ and Lagrangian function L : TQ R given in coordinates by Lq, q= Kq, q- V(q) = 12qTM(q)q- V(q) Kq, q = kinetic energy Vq = potential energy M(q) = generalized mass/inertia matrix By the least action principle, system integral curve necessarily satisfy the Euler Lagrange (E-L) equations ddtqL- qL= where n-dimensions vector contains the external joint torques. This system of second-order ordinary differential equations gives the dynamics for the actuated mechanism in phase space TQ. These equations have the special structure Mqq+ Cq, q+ Nq= Bu where n x n matrix C(q, q)contains the Coriolis/centrifugal terms, vector Nq= qVq contains the partial torques and n x n matrix B maps actuator input vector u Rm to joint torques = Bu Rn. 4.7.2 Ground Contact (Heikki, 2004) using a set of x, y points, ground surface can be modelled which are linked through straight lines. In order to make the next ground point as origin point to negative x direction of the leg tip new coordinate system is defined i.e.(x, y). Below figure shows that the position of the axis x is tangential to the ground whereas y equals the surface normal direction. y x y (x0, 0) Ft (xG, yG) x Fn Figure: The leg tip touches the ground in point (x0, 0)(grey) and penetrates it.The current position of the leg tip is (xG, yG)(black). Normal and tangential forces are applied to the leg tip when it touches the ground at the point(x, 0). In order that the situation is analogous to spring damper system, the output of the PD controller is used to calculate the normal force. Fn=-kyyG-byyG yG = current (negative) leg tip y coordinate ky = ground normal elastic constant by = normal damping ratio In order to prevent the leg sticking to the ground, only positive values would be taken for the normal force. In the tangential direction the force Ft acting is due to friction. Similar to the normal force calculation, PD controller is used to determine static friction force. The nominal value is the initial touching ground x0 Ft=-kxxG-x0-bxxG kx and bx = ground tangential properties If there is an exceeding required force than the maximum static friction force Ft,max=sFn s = static friction coefficient If the leg starts to slide than the tangential force is Ft=kFn k = kinetic friction coefficient The accumulated value of x0 is constantly set to the corresponding leg tip xG position throughout sliding. In order to attain the dynamic model input forces, the normal and tangential forces are needed to be projected to the original coordinate system (x, y) after these forces are computed. 4.7.3 Model Equations (Olli Haavisto, 2004) system status is determined by the generalised coordinates and their time derivative, coordinates with each consequent to a generalized power Fq = [Fxo, Fyo, F, FL, FR, FL, FR]T The generalised coordinated of the centre of mass of the thigh of the left and the right leg is denoted by (xL1, yL1) and (xR1, yR1) respectively. The coordinates of the centre of the mass of the left and right shin link is represented by (xL2, yL2) and (xR2, yL2) respectively. The leg tip position of the left and right leg is denoted by (xLG, yLG) and (xRG, yRG) respectively. These notations can be represented in equations as: xL1= x0- r0sin- r1sin(-L) yL1= y0-r0cos-r1cos(-L) xL2= x0- r0sin- l1sin(-L)-r2sin(-L+L) yL2= y0- r0cos- l1cos(-L)-r2cos(-L+L) xLG= x0- r0sin- l1sin(-L)-l2sin(-L+L) yLG= y0- r0cos- l1cos(-L)-l2cos(-L+L) The kinetic energy can be easily expressed in terms of the Cartesian coordinates taking in to account all the links. The total kinetic energy can be written as T=12(m0x02+y02+m1xL12+yL12+yR12+yR12+m2xL22+yL22+yR22+yR22 The generalized forces in terms of generalized components can be written as Fx0=FLx+FRx Fy0=-m0+2m1+2m2g+FLy+FRy F=-yL1m1+yL2m2+yR1m1+yR2m2g+yLGFLy+yRGFRy+xLGFLx+xRGFRx FL=-yL1Lm1+yL2Lm2g+yLGLFLy+xLGLFLx+ML1 FL=-yL2Lm2g+yLGLFLy+xLGLFLx+ML2 For the right leg the coordinates will be replaced by the coordinates of the left leg and (FLx, FRx, FLy, FRy) as mentioned earlier are the external forces of both legs. Using the equation of the generalized coordinates, kinetic energy in terms of generalized coordinates and generalized forces are placed in the Lagrange equation and the dynamic equation can be written as Aqq= b(q, q, M, F) Using mathematica software this could be simplified, Aq R7x7 is the inertia matrix and b(q, q, M, F) R7x1 is the vector containing the right hand sides of the seven partial differential equations. Appendix B contains both A and b in closed form formulas. 4.7.4 Knee Angle limiter (Heikki, 2004), the knee angle limiter is set according to the ground surface. This is mainly done as same as the calculation for the ground contact normal force. A PD controller is used to control the maximum and the minimum limit of the knee angle. In order to prevent the joint rotating over or under the limit the controller output is added to the corresponding knee joint moment. It is desirable that the knee shouldnt rotate over or under the zero angle of L or R which is bending towards wrong direction. 4.8Control Model (R.K.Mittal et al, 2003) the control needs the data of the mathematical model and some kind of intelligence to proceed on the model. (Bijoy K. Ghosh, 1999) There are three functional abilities that a control design can be categorized to in which firstly being that at the task level the robotic system should be controlled directly i.e. without planning type decomposition to joint level commands, it should take task level commands directly. Secondly, rather than for a specific task, the robot control system should be designed for a large scale of tasks so the system becomes task independent. In the end robot should have the capability of handling some unexpected or uncertain events. A traditional control system is described in the figure shown below yd(s) e(s) y(t) s 4.8.1 PD Controller In modelling control for robots there is no compromise on the response time and the overshoot of a system because of the stability of the system. (Franklin et al, 2002) Proportional action provides an instantaneous response to the control error. This is useful for improving the response of a stable system but cannot control an unstable system by itself. Derivative action acts on the rate of change of the control error; this provides a fast response as opposed to the integral action. (G.C. Goodwin et al, 2001) proportional derivative control is essential for fast response self. Derivative controllers do not need a steady state error of zero. Proportional controllers are fast, derivatives controllers are also fast so combination makes very fast controller. (O. Haavisto, 2004) a discrete PD controller was developed in order to test the biped and get the system walking. The gait pattern formation is controlled by the walker with four separate discrete PD controllers, which are fed in order to change the reference signals. The left knee angle L and the right knee angle R provide their own separate controllers. The other controller controls the corner of the biped thighs i.e. difference of thigh angles = R-L. The fourth PD controller controls the torso angle , keeping the position of the torso upright. Knee angles controller provides control signals directly for the moments ML2 and MR2. The angle between the thighs = R-L, control signals have a positive effect on the right thigh torque MR1 and negative effect on the left thigh torque ML1. Both feet on the ground, influence the control signal evenly on the both thighs. The torso angle control was detached from the actual gait control so that it is feasible to decide the used angle separately. The control signal, however, needs to be added to the thigh moments. During the double support phase, the control signal is influencing both thigh moments, but during the single support phase only to the stance leg moment. System is used as the discrete PD controllers, whose transfer function has the form ukh= Pekh+Dhe(kh) k = sample number, h = sample interval e(kh) is calculated by subtracting the adjustable parameter reference value. The expression e(kh) can be directly obtained from current and previous signal value ekh=ekh-e(k-1h) By a suitable choice of the proportional controller gain P, the steady state error requirements can be met. 4.8.2 Reference Signals Signals are formed step by step adding, subtracting or keep references to constant values between the sampling systems status. References are constant at the beginning of the double support phase but when the momentum is shifted forward then the knee reference is increased the angle between the thighs is reduced when the foot is raised and system moves to change the phase. Swing leg is transferred front ways by reducing the angle between the thighs to a constant value, so that the foot does not hit the base too early. When the leg is swung forward the knee is straightened before the touchdown as it remains far from the base. The creation of the reference signals was planned so that the left leg is for all time the swinging leg. When a new double support phase begins, the left and right leg signals are in the state input and reference output switched. Below shows the table of the parameters used in the controller P D Double Support Phase: The angle between the thighs 60 1 Knee angle L, R 40 0,5 Torso angle 40 2 Phase Change: The angle between the thighs 70 6 Support leg knee angle 30 2 Swing leg knee angle 10 0,1 Table. PD-controllerused forwalkingdownthe parameters. CHAPTER 6 IMPLEMENTATION The biped walking model is implemented using Similink. The biped model in simulink consists of three blocks implementing dynamic equation of the biped model, calculating the ground support forces and limiting the knee angle. This model simulates complete walking model of the biped. The parameter definition of the biped model is shown in the table below. Field Description Units Robot dimensions: l Robot link length [l0, l1, l2] m r Centre of mass distances [r0, r1, r2] m m Link masses [m0, m1, m2] kg Robot initial state: coordinates [x0, y0, , L, R, L,R] m, (rad) speeds [x0, y0, , L, R, L, R] m/s, (rad/s) Knee angle limiter parameters: kk elastic constant Nm/(rad) bk damping ratio Nms/(rad) min minimum angle for L and R (rad) max maximum angle for L and R (rad) Ground Properties: ground surface points x1, x2, y1, y2, m ky normal elastic constant kg/s2 by normal damping ratio kg/s kx tangential elastic constant kg/s2 bx tangential damping ratio kg/s mus static friction coefficient s muk kinetic friction coefficient k Additional parameters: acceleration of gravity m/s2 sample time s These would be explained one by one in detail. 6.1 Biped block 6.1.1 Dynamic model This block output is a 14 x 1 matrix which calculates the position of the seven variables in which two are the position of the centre of the torso and five angles q = (x0, y0, , L, R, L, R) as described earlier and the rate of change of these variables q = (x0, y0, , L, R, L, R) after solving the equation q=bq, q, M, F*A-1(q) Inertia matrix A(q) is a 7 x 7 matrix and the complete formulas are shown in Appendix B. Matrix A depends on position of the seven variables. The matrix b is a 7 x 1 matrix and depends on 22 variables. The seven position variables q of the biped robot, their corresponding first derivatives q, the moments calculated from the PD controller and contact forces (two are used at a time because of one leg being in contact with the ground). 6.1.2 Ground Contact Model Ground support forces and the sensor values are the main output of this block. Initially the leg tip cartesian coordinates are determined using the formulae described earlier and the speed formulae are determined by taking the first derivative of the cartesian coordinates. The two identical control forces block handles the leg separately. This block calculates the tangential and normal forces by projecting the leg tip coordinate to the local (x, y) coordinate system and an in the end projects them to support forces. Sensor values tell whether the foot is in contact with the ground or not. When the leg is contact with the ground the sensor value is set to 1 and 0 otherwise. The senor value of the leg is determined by the relational operator as shown below in the figure. If the position of the leg tip is smaller or equal to the ground level that the relational will give a 1 on the output. 6.1.3 Knee Angle Limiter block If the angle of the joint does not remain in the given limits this block adds a moment value to the knee joint moments. The selector selects the position of the knee angles L and R and compares if the knee angle has gone beyond the maximum or minimum limit or not. The moments are added to the right and left knee moment and nothing is added to the other two moments. In this block if the knee angle goes over or under the limit than PD controller calculates the moment value and adds it to the previous values. 6.2 PD Control Block PDcontrolwas implementedin Simulinkblock,which istofeedthe systemstate, updatesiton the basis ofreference signalandcalculates thedifference variableon the basis of appropriatemoments.Figurebelowshowsblockstructurewhere thereferencesignals and theactualformation ofthe PD-controlisseparatedinto separate subsectors create references and controller Figure. PD controller block with create reference and controller sub block Figure below showstheCreatereferencesblockcontent.Reference signalis calculated assumingthat theswinglegisalwaysleftandrightleg.Therefore at the second stepthe signal of the biped must be changed. The reference creation is created using three main steps, as the there are two main phases in walking i.e. double support phase and the single support phase so the reference are created at these phases. There is another block in which the legs are switched as the controller is designed only for the left foot so when the leg strikes the ground the same process is switched to the other leg. If in the double support phase when the leg strikes the ground, difference between the horizontal distances i.e. xR x0 is more than 0.118 then the references block is enabled and references are calculated. The calculated step length error is subtracted from the horizontal distance of the robot. When the single support phase is enabled the references are created for the four controllers as described before. The Controller block initially determines the differences of the controlled variables and reference values. The constraints for the PD controllers are chosen in accordance with the phase of the step. After the control signals are calculated, they are changed to the moments. The four similar PD controllers take the difference signals and the parameters (P, D) as inputs and give the resultant control signals as outputs. The only special feature in the discrete PD controllers is the speed term zeroing. When the D parameter is transformed the speed term is zeroed for one time step in order to evade peaks in the output signal. Because all of the controlled variables cannot be affected straight through the inputs of the biped system, a conversion of the control values is needed. The control signal is separated to both thigh moments, and the torso angle control signal is added to the thigh moment of the leg that is touching the ground. If both legs are in contact with the ground, the control is divided equally between the two moments. CHAPTER 7 BIPED WALKING RESULTS In this section complete results of the walking of the bipedal would be discussed. As described earlier there are seven variables that mostly influence the biped robots x0, y0, , L, R, L, R. The position of these variables will be shown graphically and finally a complete walking cycle of the bipedal walking robot would be shown. A complete walking cycle was simulated and result were taken through the GUI The above figure shows a complete walking step of the biped robot, the dotted foot is taken as the left foot and the plain blue as the right leg. The left leg in this case is the swing leg and the right leg is the stance leg. The left foot take off from the ground and then takes a complete forward step and then gets back to the original position to become the stance leg and other one right becomes the swing leg. The horizontal coordinate of the centre of the mass of the torso will increase almost linearly with respect to time as shown in the graph. The y-axis shows the horizontal mass centre x0 w.r.t to x-axis and time on the x-axis The vertical movement of the centre of the would be similar to a projectile motion as the biped moves forward with time the centre of the torso will go upwards and then back down to the original position. The initial value for y0 is given in the m-file as 1.3749. There is a slight movement at the beginning that is because initially for some time there is a double support phase before the swinging of leg. In the figure shown below y-axis denotes the vertical position of the torsos centre and time on the x-axis. The angle which torso makes with respect to the normal as said earlier is denoted by . Angle starts from the negative angle w.r.t. normal and then increases for some time and then come back to the original position which can be seen in the walking cycle figure. Below figure shows the angle of the left and right thigh which it makes w.r.t. the torso. When either of the thigh angles goes to zero it means the thigh is straightened w.r.t the torso and is done when the leg strikes the ground which is shown in the walking cycle . So below graph shows the right and left thigh angle L and R. When the leg is raised from the ground, the knee is bended then again coming in line with the thigh just before again coming in contact with the ground. The figure shown below shows the knee angles L and R. Below shows the sensor values of the left and the right leg. When the leg is contact with the ground the value of the sensor is one and zero if it is not in contact with the ground. If one of the legs is taken the leg tip position in the x direction moves linearly and then zero for time until the other leg finishes the step and same is with the vertical movement the leg tip goes up and then comes back to ground and then remain zero until other leg comes back to ground. BIPEDAL RUNNING 8.1 Introduction (J.R.Ridgley, 2001) walking has been a focal point for a very large body of researchers, as it is considered the most basic form of legged locomotion with running as an enhancement. There is a popular phrase one must learn to walk before one can run. Less power and stress on the component of a system is required for walking. There is a significant practical advantage of the legged machines which can run over those limited to walking motion, but not much of a research has been done into the design of practical running machines. This is because there are a number of significant problems while constructing practical running machines. There are concerns which have been adequately resolved by modern technology. For example, mechanical structures and mechanisms can simply be developed which will consistently maintain the heaps of running, at least for devices developed on a reasonable extent of size for devices with masses on the order of 0.01kg to 100kg. At smaller extent than this, conve ntional machining methods are hard to use, and on larger scales the power requirements located on mechanical components may become unfeasible. Embedded control computers are extensively accessible which can easily process data rapidly enough to control the sensors and actuators which are expected to be used to control a running machine. Sensors which can calculate forces, accelerations, distances, angles, and velocities are easily accessible and only modestly expensive in contrast to other components of a typical robot. Actuators with adequate power density, for example electromagnetic and pneumatic actuators, are common. 8.2 Running Cycle Stance phase takeoff flight phase impact phase phase Figure. Running cycle (M.R.Anglin, 2011) running cycle can be described in two main categories flight phase and the stance phase. Each of thesephasesdefines the position of the foot at a certain portion of therunningcycle. Researchers who study a persons walking andrunninglocomotion can use the information obtained to find and solverunningproblems. The swing phase of arunningcycle occurs when none of the foot is in contact with the ground. The stance phase occurs between the time the leg tip is in contact with the ground and continues until the leg tip leaves the ground. The stance phase of arunningcycle can additionally be categorised into three sub phases: contact, mid-stance, and propulsion. During the contact sub phase, the leg tip comes in contact with the ground, and the sub phase carries on until the complete foot comes in contact with the ground. This contact can put a lot of pressure, occasionally equivalent to three times a persons body weight or more, onto the foot. After the contact sub phase comes the mid-stance sub phase. During this phase, the body bends forward and shifts over the foot to get ready for the next sub phase, the propulsion sub phase. A runner in the propulsion sub phase of therunninggait will see himself propelled forward. Straight away following this sub phase is the float phase. During the propulsion sub phase, the leg tip will leave the ground and the person is shifted forward. The sub phase ends with the leg tip taking-off the ground. Therunningcycle will continue until the foot touches the ground again, completing the cycle. 8.3 Robot Running Hypothesis (Westervelt et al, 2007) in order to ensure that the robots consequent motion satisfies the below properties consistent with the notion of a simple running gait, conditions on the controller will be imposed. Running can be categorised into three main phases single support, flight and impact. Throughout the contact, the stance leg end acts as an ideal pivot, during the single support phase. The ratio of the horizontal component to the vertical component does not excel the coefficient of static friction. The vertical component of the ground reaction device is non-negative. During the flight phase, a non-zero horizontal distance is covered by the centre of the mass. When the former swing leg end come in contact with the ground the flight phase ends. There is no slipping or rebounding of leg at impact. There is a symmetric motion of successive single support and flight phase with respect to two legs in the steady state. Running would take place on level surface from left to right. 8.4 Trajectory with telescopic legs (Raibert et al, 1986) and (T.DMcGeer, 1990) have deeply studied the running in the robots. (Gieger etal., 2001) are also working on the realization of a biped running robot. They have projected a running controller based on feedback linearization. (Shuuji Kajita, 2002) established a technique for running pattern generation using the dynamics of a simple inverted pendulum. In order to conduct the simulation a very simple has been taken with a point mass of m and a mass less telescopic leg. g l l y y Fz 0 Fz = 0 (a) (b) Figure. (a) the telescopic leg when in contact with the ground (b) takeoff phase The length of the leg in controlled as l=l0+sint l0 = neutral leg length = the amplitude of the vibration = frequency Fy is the reaction force and is zero when the foot is in the air but when in contact with the ground is given by Fy=ml+g=m(-2sint+g) g = gravitational acceleration In a certain phase Fy is negative when 2 g. This happens when the foot of the leg is firmly in contact with the ground. When Fy approaches zero it means that the foot is leaving the contact with the ground which means robot jumps into the air and then the robot takes a free fall trajectory. The liftoff timing A and the moment of takeoff yA can be written as A=1sin-1g2 yA=cosA=()2-(g)2 Now two legs are considered in the running model which is shown in the figure below. m lR lL y 0 Figure. Biped Model The length of the right leg lR can be represented as lR=l0+sint The time when both the foot are of the ground or the flight phase time Tflight can be written as Tflight=2yAg In order to achieve smooth landing the left leg lL length can be written as lL=l0+sint-delay Where delay can be formulated as delay=Tflight-22-A The velocity and acceleration of the mass change is continuous at the moment of landing. At the support phase the biped is supported by one of the legs so the duration of the support phase can be written as Tsupport=+2A Now the formulation for the horizontal locomotion is done in the sagittal plane (x,y) and for ideal condition it is assumed that the torque around the contact point equal to zero (y = 0). This results the constraint between floor reaction forces and mass location as FxFy=xy Fx = horizontal floor reaction force x = horizontal position The horizontal can be calculated as x=1mFx = -2sint+gl0+sintx The above equation is for the support phase where -At 2+A 8.5 Running with segmented legs The above model only had one degree of freedom in order to design a humanoid robot a two segment leg robot model would be discussed in detail. (J. Rummel, 2008) for this action a stance leg would be taken which is represented by a linear spring of rest length l0 and leg stiffness k. For this model only forces directed from a fixed contact point at the ground to the centre of the mass would be generated and the amount the amount of the force depends on the leg compressionl=l0-l(t). A constant leg stiffness k is assumed for a linear relationship between leg compression and leg force. Two mass less segments of length l1 and l2 defines the segmented leg. These two segments are connected by inter segmental leg joint with an inner angle . In order to produce spring-like forces in a segmented leg a torsional spring of stiffness c at inter segmental joint with joint torque, is introduced. =c =0- =denotes the amount flexion in the joint 0 = rest angle denotes the instantaneous joint angle and is defined as the function of leg length l and it can be written as l=cos-1(l12+l22-l2)2l1l2 Rest angle 0 which corresponds to a rest length of the leg is needed in order to calculate the amount of joint flexion l00=l12+l22-2l1l1cos(0) In consequence, any amount of joint flexion interprets into an equivalent amount of leg compression l depending on the selected rest angle 0. The leg force could be written as Fleg=ll1l2sin 8.5.1 Reference and effective stiffness Implementation A complete model of running on segmented legs would be modelled using simulink. The complete model is shown below Figure. Simulink model for running with segmented legs Firstly flight phase block would be described. In the flight control block the position of the leg x and y which are calculated before are subtracted from the position of the leg at touchdown which are written as yL=l0sin(0) xL=l0cos(0) When x xL is zero that means the leg is contact with the ground with the angle 0 and then the contact phase is triggered and then and the position are send to the next block for the calculation of contact force, the angle between the segments and the acceleration. The formulae of these parameters are already shown. The l during the flight changes according to simple Pythagoras theorem can be formulated as l=x2+y2 When the l0 = l that means it is contact with the ground and then the F, and a are calculated In the integration sub block the acceleration calculated is integrated to first velocity vx and vy and then again integrated to position x and y As yapex is the maximum height he leg goes and when the leg does not reach that height that means the leg has fallen and simulation is stopped and when the vertical velocity becomes zero that means one step is completed and then the step count is incremented. METHODOLOGY OF BIPEDAL RUNNING FUTURE WORK CONCLUSION

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Data Warehousing And The Online Processing Of Data Essay

Data Management Ahmed EL Makki Walden University Abstract We will discuss in this paper the data warehousing and the online processing of data. We will describe the best ways to manage the data and the difficulties that you could face. Also we will talk about how can we solve or reduce these difficulties. Database Management Systems (DBMS) Database Management Systems (DBMS) maximize: ââ€"  Data security ââ€"  Data integrity ââ€"  Data independence Data Warehousing Data warehousing is a powerful business intelligence tool for maximizing the organization’s investment in the information technology. It is can be describe as a collection of decision support technologies, maid to allow executive, manager, and analyst, to make faster decisions. IT managers need to learn and implement data warehousing because it is very powerful tool provides storage, functionality and responsiveness to queries beyond the capabilities of today s databases. It also improves the data access performance. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Core Framework Of Paternalistic Leadership Style

Let’s now turn our attention to the core elements of paternalistic leadership. In this section, we will explore the core framework of paternalistic leadership style, before analysing two core theories of motivation that drive the framework. At the end, we’ll also explore the two separate strains of paternalistic framework: benevolent and exploitative models. The core framework When it comes to leadership, a few core elements guide the way in which different leadership styles organise and manifest. These are: †¢ The decision making power – Who has the power to decide? †¢ The legitimacy of rule – Where does the power come from? Paternalistic framework is built around the authoritative idea that the leader is the person with the power to decide and his legitimacy comes from his or her expertise. The leader has the final say in making decisions and consultation is not required, as the leader is expected to make choices that benefit the subordinates. 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Roman Catholic Church and Judgement in the Middle Ages Essay

â€Å"In flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power.† (Thessalonians 1:8, 9). The Middle Ages was a time of death, pain and superstition; no one could escape God’s judgment. When the Roman Empire fell, The Church had created an everlasting clutch of control over the people. If one did not obey The Church, they were excommunicated and labeled heretics, cast out into the world with no spiritual guidance, never to see the light of God again. However, The Church also offered hope and a chance of salvation in a time that was inevitably grim and solitary.†¦show more content†¦In the Dark Ages, the Christian Church had developed into the most powerful institution in Europe; however, in the start of The Church’s rise, there were many Germanic tribes who did not follow its teachings. The Church then gradually mixed old faiths and new religion to convert the Germanic tribes to Christianity. Then in 771, Charlemagne, King of the Franks, supported The Pope and created the first true Christian kingdom in Europe. His Christian faith led the Germanic tribes to follow the teachings of The Lord and convert to Christianity. He encouraged the growth of monasteries and valued priests who could read and write. He made the Frankish Army defenders of The Church and Pope in Rome and gave The Church a financial base by payments of tithe, 10% of peoples’ income, to support The Church and priests. In AD 800, Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor, ruler of France, Germany and Italy. In a violent society were cruelty and murder were common, The Church was the only stable body that offered some hope of salvation for suffering people. 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Big Box Retailers Essay Example For Students

Big Box Retailers Essay America has always been a country where freedom has been treasured. Freedom is the most basic, valued principle that America was founded on. Whenever a threat looms, it is the cry and demand for freedom that pulls at the heartstrings of all Americans and moves them to action. Any threat to freedom is, in essence, a threat to America. This is usually interpreted as only a military threat, but there is another form the threat could take that is equally dangerous: an economic threat. This is why there are laws against monopolies so that one company never has an unfair advantage over another. Freedom, equal opportunity for all. Enter the world of big box retailers. These companies are the biggest and most profitable there are to be found in America the cornerstones of American economic prosperity. Some people, however, contest that the negatives of having a big box retailer in your town far outweigh the positives. Over the years and through many debates and conflicts it has become appare nt that, no matter how beneficial big box retailers are to America, they have an overall negative effect on the American people. Some of the negative aspects of big box retailers can be seen in the effects on the environment and economy. Pollution has always been a big concern for anyone who has seen films or pictures from some of the Southeast Asian countries, where smog sometimes fills the whole sky of cities. Indeed, pollution is a terrible thing, but unfortunately it is a real concern for our modern times. There is always a price to pay for advancing, and in many cases that price is the creation of harmful substances to the environment around us, and sometimes even to us. One shocking example of this happened not so long ago right here in the United States, when one of the five great lakes, Lake Erie, was so full of pollution around Cleveland that almost all of the wildlife died and people could literally walk across the top of the pollution on the lake. Obviously, nobody wants anything like this to ever happen again. Fortunately, the lake was eventually cleaned up, but the damage was done, both to the env ironment and to the psyche and mindset of the American people. Some people see big box retailers as a cause of much pollution, and for some people thats all they need to hear in order to be eternally opposed against big box retailers. While the reality of the situation may not be bad enough to cause another Lake Erie incident, research has shown that enough pollution is caused by big box retailers to warrant some concern (Erlenmacher 10). Research has also shown that pollution in California from big box retailers costs $200 million every year to clean up (Smith 73). This number is way too large for many peoples tastes, and it can be seen why there are people out there lobbying against big box retailers. A second major concern centering on big box retailers is the amount of traffic they bring to areas incapable of handling it. Many times big box retailers build their stores in small towns that dont have any other stores like them. These towns arent used to seeing much traffic at all, much less the traffic that big stores inevitably bring in. This increase of traffic causes long traffic backups, and causes a general headache to everyone unfortunate enough to be driving at the time, especially the people who happen to be living nearby. People with children have to remember to be much more careful than they were before the retailer moved in and make sure their small children stay away from the busy streets, and it makes life overall a much bigger hassle than it was in years past. It is harder for people to sleep at night or enjoy a quiet moment, and basically makes life more unpleasant. Jack Stong said in an interview that living in a small town before the Lowes moved in was almost everything I could ask for peaceful and quiet. After the Lowes came in, though, the noise level went up 100% and destroyed a lot that made the town special to me in the first place (Jack Stong interview). It is also seen that this increased traffic has a direct effect on everyones safet y. Research shows that police response times can go up by as much as 600% from what they were before the retailer moved in and jammed all of the streets (Kunstler 106). Not only is this a major annoyance, it can also be quite harmful in an indirect way to people needing assistance quickly. A different study showed that from 1980 to 1990 commuting times in California increased 13% (Kunstler 210). Certainly no small thing, the issue of increasing traffic only adds to the bad taste in the mouths of many Americans. One last major economic and environmental concern is that of urban sprawl. This is a huge point that many people use to argue against big box retailers. Urban sprawl is basically where the cities spread outward at a tremendous rate, consuming farmland and forests alike. Big box retailers are the main cause of urban sprawl. Since there are so many big box retailers across the country, and because many downtown cities dont have sufficient space to hold the buildings the compani es want, the retailers buy huge tracts of land that previously had farmland or forests and build there. This is an inexpensive way for retailers to build relatively close to large cities, as opposed to having to build downtown, which would cost much more. However, as so as the companies build in a place, it is like a domino effect. Other businesses set up there to take advantage of the many customers the retailers bring in. When they set up, many people also build housing nearby so they can travel to work easier or so they can take advantage of the close proximity of all the new businesses. This, in effect, creates a miniature city of itself, with businesses, homes, schools, libraries, police stations, and hospitals all building there (Morris 39). This may seem like a good thing, but the consequences of this are that huge amounts of previously free land are now being taken over, and many habitats are being destroyed. Forests, swamps, and fields all make way for big businesses. Now t hat some of the cons were revealed, there are also many benefits to having a big box retailer in a community. One of the largest, most obvious of these is, of course, that of helping the communities to grow. There are hundreds of small towns in America today, where one would be lucky to even find a delivery pizza place, much less a big box retailer (Morris 37). These towns dont have many residents, and those that do live there usually have to travel far to reach a store that has everything they might need or want. Big box retailers are a solution to this problem. When they set up in a small town, not only do they bring many more choices and much more convenience to the people of that town, but it has been seen that wherever big box retailers go, those towns tend to grow in size. For many small towns struggling with revenues and support from their citizens, big box retailers are a good thing (Mazur 16). Another benefit of having a big box retailer move in is that it provides more job s for the people living in that community. Some people are born in a town and live there for their whole life, because they cant find any money or opportunities to get out. While working at a big box retailer may not be everyones first choice of a job, it certainly isnt the worst job out there. The wage is usually a dollar or mare than minimum wage, and most provide some kind of health insurance coverage (Mazur 17). People also have an opportunity to move up in the organization, gaining more and more benefits and higher wages. Big box retailers are also a great place for high school and college students to work part time while theyre focusing on their studies. Approximately 65% of jobs found at a K-Mart are part time positions (Cain np). This creates great opportunity for part time job seekers to have a good, low-stress job to work at while theyre away from classes. The Rivers Of France EssayA final benefit of having a big box retailer is that it brings outside money into the community. While big box retailers sometimes give less money back to the community than local businesses, they gain a much larger sum of money, so either way the community prospers. If a Wal-Mart is built in a town where there arent any other Wal-Marts for fifty miles around, that Wal-Mart will get the business from everyone living closest to it. Many people will even go to the Wal-Mart who always used to drive farther away to do their major shopping (Jack Stong interview). This helps keep the money in the community and benefits the people who paid, rather than someone living in another city. While there are disputably many benefits to having a big box retailer nearby, the number of possible consequences still looks more imposing. In addition to the environmental and economic consequences, there are also many, subtler sentimental effects that the presence of a big box ret ailer has on the people living in the town. One major one is that it destroys the special small town feeling that exists in many communities. Small towns have always been known for having a special aura that many of the big cities cannot hope to obtain. There is something peaceful about driving through a town of 2500 people and seeing things that make is special. There is a sense of history, of everyone knowing each other, a family atmosphere that sets them aside from any larger town or city (Jack Stong interview). Many of these small towns also have something that they are proud of, some unique claim to fame that no other town can match. The tranquillity of a small town in America is very pervasive and real, but big box retailers destroy much of that special feeling. Placing a large store right in the middle of a small town is very noticeable and obtrusive. It really detracts from that towns special feeling, that sense of their own identity that has always been there (Cain np). To many people who live in cities, this may not seem like such a big deal. But many other people who do live in these small towns use this as their most persuasive argument one that touches a soft spot inside every American who has ever lived in a small town. For these small towns, their identity or claim to fame is a very serious issue, and when a Wal-Mart or any other big box retailer wants to build there, many of the residents will argue wholeheartedly against it for this one reason, regardless of the potential economic benefits (walmartwatch.com). It is an argument that has caused much frustration in many of the big box retailers, and the solution continues to elude them today. A different and perhaps more concrete argument against big box retailers is that there is less diversity when they move into town. While at first it would seem that big box retailers do diversify the selection of goods the community has to choose from because of their large warehouses, time has shown that th is is untrue (Hamilton E2). In fact, when big box retailers move into town, their low prices and convenience oftentimes causes many of the other local businesses of the town to have to close down (Hamilton E2). This definitely detracts from the quaintness of the town, because there is a mystique about a locally run business that is unique. In addition to that, it also creates less competition and much less diversity in the town, because now instead of having several different locally run businesses, you have just one big box retailer that is pretty much the same in any location throughout the country (sprawl-busters.com). One last consequence of a big box retailer is that they create less freedom of speech. This can be seen primarily in the music section of a big box retailer. Because of worried parents, many big box retailers were forced to impose censors on much of their CDs and cassettes (Smith 56). While some might argue that this is a good thing, many others are angry at the fa ct that they arent able to buy and listen to a song how it was meant to be listened to. This takes away from the feeling of the song, and instead creates a shadow of the former song that many refuse to even listen to because it is in their minds musically inferior to the real version. Despite many of the protests, big box retailers remain an integral part of the American economy, both within its borders and in other countries. Yet, it can be clearly seen that despite the many advantages that can be gained from big box retailers, there are still many consequences that people just dont want to have to deal with. While big box retailers in themselves arent a horrible thing, there should be a way to lower the number of cons associated with having a big box retailer in a town. Only then will they be fully accepted and welcomed into every aspect of American life, and then everyone will be better off for it.